From a strategic HARM theory perspective, training has been viewed as a means of enhancing the performance of the employee (Smith and Hayden, 1999) and organizational performance (Delaney and Hustled, 1996). Resource based theories of strategic HARM views human resources as a "core competency' for the firm (Parkland Hammed, 1990; Barney, 1991; Amid and Shoemaker, 1993). The human resource view posits that a firm can "leverage" its pool of human capital to achieve a competitive advantage (Hustled al. 1997). The resource-Dates flew assumes Nat t ten Territories In ten organizational, unman Ana physical resources between firms create a fundamental heterogeneity in their productive potential (Prime and Butler, 2001). Training and development (T;D) encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Caravan, Costing, and Hearty, of the Irish Institute of Training and Development, note that these ideas are often considered to be honeymoons.
However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, * Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the Job that an individual currently holds.  * Education: This activity focuses upon the Jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those Jobs.  * Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.
Training Process Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform their Jobs. Training might mean showing a new Web designer the intricacies of your site, a new salesperson how to sell your firm's product, or a new supervisor how to fill out the firm's weekly payroll timeshares. Training is a hallmark of good management, and a task manager ignore at their peril. Having high-potential employees doesn't guarantee they'll succeeds.
Five steps Training and Development Process, Analysis Phase: An effective business is one that is able to scan its environment and determine the products and services it can provide to meet customer or market needs. Similarly an effective training system begins with a determination of customer needs in the needs analysis phase. Design Phase: In addition to the training needs identified in the TAN, additional inputs to the design phase are developed from the organizational and operational analyses.
These inputs include both the constraints placed on training and areas of expected support. Constraints and support occur in relation to things such as organizational plans resources and business cycles. Another set of inputs is derived room theory and research on learning these inputs are used in the design of training programs to facilitate learning and the transfer of the learning back to the work site. Development Phase: Program development is the process of formulating an instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives.
The instructional strategy consists AT ten order, telling Ana accommodation AT elements to De uses In ten training program. Inputs into this phase are provided by the design phase and include the alternative instructional methods and the information relating to learning facilitation and transfer. All elements of a particular training program are determined during the development phase. Implementation Phase: All the aspects of the training program come together during the implementation phase however; it is a mistake to assume that everything will happen as planned.
Therefore it is useful to conduct a dry run of the training similar to a dress rehearsal for a play allowing the trainer to become familiar with the facility, equipment and materials with no actual trainees present. A useful next step in the implementation process is a pilot training group, consisting of a small number f trainee's representative of the larger population. Evaluation Phase: Although we discuss this phase of the model last it actually begins during the development phase. Recall that evaluation objectives are an output of the design phase. These outputs become inputs to the evaluation phase.
Outcome evaluation: Outcome evaluation is conducted at the end of training to determine the effects of training on the trainee the Job, and the organization, using the training objectives as the standard. Outcome evaluation can also be used to improve training processes. Outcome evaluation data by themselves do not provide enough information for program improvement but in combination with process evaluation data they serve as a powerful tool for improving programs. Research Methodology The study is a case study based qualitative and quantitative research.
The rationale behind choosing this to find out the different context of training and development between a local and a foreign organization both primary and secondary data is used for data collection. Various articles Journals collected from the internet used as secondary data of the research. Personal discussion and interview with employees are the sources of primary data collection. A structured questionnaire was used to keep the study in an assembly and interview the respondents based on employee training and development policies and practices as well.
Around 20 employees of the Milliner and Pachysandra Group are interviewed by Phone calls and face to face conversation. Questionnaire was developed focusing on some important issues like; importance of training, types and methods of training, training need analysis (T. N. A), training evaluation, budget for training, training for expatriates and their expectation from the organization regarding training. Chart and diagrams are also used based on employee responses.
Discussion Brief Overview of the Two Companies unlived Bangles Over the last four decades, Milliner Bangladesh has been constantly bringing new and world-class products for the Bangladesh people to remove the daily drudgery of life. Type of business Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company with local manufacturing facilities, reporting to regional business groups for innovation and business results. Operations Home and Personal Care, Foods Product categories Household Care, Fabric Cleaning, Skin Cleansing, Skin Care, Oral Care, Hair Care, Personal Grooming, Tea based Beverages.
Pachysandra Group The Pachysandra Group has started operation as a real estate venture known as "Pachysandra" under the aegis of the Group's first concern - the East West Property Development (Pet) Ltd in 1987. This project turned out to be a very successful one and had helped foster the growth of trust and confidence of the urban people in "Pachysandra". Dacha's burgeoning population, coupled with a conspicuously slow growth of housing led to the landmark success of Pachysandra. Real estate, Construction, Fast-moving consumer goods, Steel, Shopping Mall, Paper ND paper products, Energy, Cement, Media, Ship building.
Real estate, cement, paper and pulp, tissue paper, steel, LIP Gas, ship building. It also owned recreation centre called the Pachysandra City and in print and online media that include bangle dailies - "The Kale Kanata" and "The Bangladesh Prating", English newspaper the "Daily Sun" and bilingual online portal "Bangladesh. Com. Training and development practices of the Milliner Bangladesh The nature of training and development designed by Milliner is proactive-planned and systematically administrated rather than reactive-provided only when problem occurs.
Everybody is given equal number of training based on their level. A probe suggests that about 75% to 80% employees are provided training each year. As it is a multinational organization, it has to always keep pace with the changing situation; they have to adjust their training contents with changing need and environment. Alike other organizations, Milliner also uses both general and specific training. General training is the training that provides the worker with skill development not only applicable Tort ten present employer. Enliven eagles strategic learning roadman insisting tailored learning strategies for each of our employee clusters of the business divisions, based on a shared vision, to make us a proud member of a learning organization. Milliner adopt best technology based modules, methodologies, in-house and external faculties/trainers to ensure the best return from human development investments. On-the-job-training and off-the-job-training both are also used by Milliner to train up employees. Internship and training from senior staff are the most common method for on-the-Job training.
Sometimes senior management share their knowledge and experiences about attaining seminars on broad or other special training that is also considered as on-the-job-training. Off- the-Job training is undertaken by Bangladesh Institute of Management (MM), National Productivity Organization Bangladesh, Participation on Different Training program Conducted by boots. Com and Proton-all]bobs. Com etc. Hiring Faculty from outside and organizing different training program for the need of employees is a unique feature of Milliner.
List of Training Program Employees of Milliner Usually Attended * Training on Selling Skill * Advertising and Brand Management * Market Development * HER Summit Strategies for New Product Launching * Training on negotiable act * Money market account * Territory Management * Customer Relation & Behavior Modeling * Risk Management * Communication Skill Training Methods Used by Milliner: * Training institute * Lecture method * Role play * Business games * External consultants * Experience sharing by senior management * Job rotation * e-learning Figure 1: Various Training Methods of Milliner Different Types of Training Program: unlived Bangles arranges Deterrent * Induction training I * Skill development( Current Position) types AT training program sun as Skill development (after promotion) I * Knowledge development ( Current Position) I * Knowledge development ( after promotion) I Figure 2: Different Types of Training Program of Milliner Approach of employee regarding frequency and effectiveness of the training asked the employees (number was 10) during the interview how they feel about the training provided by the organization the response was very much positive from the employee. Though they have some recommendation however they feel it very helpful for their development. Figure 3: Employee Feedback regarding Training Fragmentariness and Development Practices of the Pachysandra Group Training activities of Pachysandra is focused on transforming its human capital to achieve business excellence by increasing the bandwidth of Pachysandra workforce.
To win present and future challenges Pachysandra identify knowledge and skill sets that are pivotal factors and Pachysandra design a variety of programs so that achieving such success by using creativity, agility, flexibility, skill diversity and IT technology becomes a custom. Pachysandra scan external environment for comparing industry practices, benchmark best practices and implement competency management programs to offer outstanding services to its valued customers. Enormous and spontaneous shared efforts are made with the strategic intent of achieving excellence in delivering customized services to meet the ever changing development needs of the human resources. Corporate Values of Pachysandra are embedded in the process of designing, developing and delivering each activity of Training Department throughout the organization.
Method Used in Training Need Analysis * Assessing new employees Training Needs * Assessing current employees Training Needs On the Basis of this Pachysandra Introduce following program: On the Job Training * Job Inclusion Training Types of Training Pachysandra Offer for their Employee * IGMP perspective and validation Largo laws Tort Managers * Basic Inventory Management * Asset Management * Business process flow Minimization * Analysis and Decision Making tool for Finance Manager * Risk management * Supervisory leadership skill * Communication Skill at work place * Time management Various Training Methods Used by Pachysandra * Experience sharing by senior management (Within the business division not formal session) * Job rotation Figure 4: Various Training Methods of Pachysandra Group Different Types of Training Program Used by Pachysandra Pachysandra Group arranges mainly * On the Job training' for the employees * Training after promotion * Induction Training * Training for introduction of new techniques etc.
Figure 5: Different Types of Training Program of Pachysandra Approach of Employee Regarding Frequency and Effectiveness of the Training We asked the employees (number was 10) during the interview how they feel about the training provided by the organization and we got a mixed response many of them were positive however a good number of employee express their dissatisfaction costly due to the absence of a organized training department and feel that frequency of the training is not up to the mark. Figure 6: Employee Feedback Regarding Training Frequency Finding and Analysis Comparison between the training of Milliner and Pachysandra Group Feature unlived I Abyssinians Group In house training facility I Yes I No I Training Department I Organized and Specific training department exists. I No Organized and Specific training department exists.
I Criteria for Training Need Analysis I Job description, Job enlargement, Promotion, Introduction of new technology, specific skill development. I Job description, Promotion, Introduction of new technology. I Overseas Training I Frequent I Rare I Training Method I Mixture of Different method I Mostly external Training Institute I Facilities provided in the Training I Meal, Transportation, Allowance, Accommodation(depending on the situation) I Meal, Transportation, Allowance, Accommodation(depending on the situation) I Minimum Training Length per Year I Over 40 hours I No such specified rule I Type of Training I Balanced mixture of induction training, skill and knowledge development. I Mainly induction training and skill development for the current employees.
I Overall satisfaction I Very satisfied (90% are satisfied) I Mixed (60% are satisfied)l Training after promotion I Each and every employee get training after promotion I It is not very frequent and not every employee get training after promotion I From the discussion and comparison it can be said that both the organization are well concern about the training of their employee and trainings are encouraged as tool for the development of the employee. Though the view for the training is positive for both the organization but the initiative for arrange training for the employees are not in same manner. Milliner has a well organized training department that arranges regular training program for their employee according to the Training need analysis. They arrange in house training program by internal and external faculty, regular training in the outside training institute.
Formal group discussion and role playing session are common along with e-learning session. Key feature of the Milliner is each of their employee get training after promotion. On the contrary Pachysandra does not have any specified training department. Training are arranges outside training institute on the recommendation and concern f the own department of the organization. Training after promotion is not a common practice rather it happened occasionally. Recommendation After going through the primary and secondary data following recommendation are made in relation with the training needs assessment of Pachysandra Group and Milliner Bangladesh.
For Pachysandra Group * A proper training department or Institute has to be developed for dealing these training related matters as internationally standard. * Steps have to be under taken for building proper resources for giving training internally. * Proactive approach o a De netter than reactive approach Decease anticipating needs Is netter than waiting until they cause problem. * A proper training planner has to be made to send executives for training. For Milliner Bangladesh * The Training Methods ; Policy can be updated by continuing survey on competitive business organization and by taking current opinion of the Trainee ; Training Instructors. In case of International Training-the policy of the company should be developed.. Conclusion Training and Development should be a continuous process for any organization for its all employee. The world is advancing with the advancement of everything from technology to human resource department, finance, sales, marketing, information technology etc and to accustom with this advancement everybody needs appropriate training. An organization has various aspects, fields and discipline of works. It is not so easy to access the total need of training and as well as field of training of the officers of multidisciplinary on the part of a trainee researcher within a very short period.