Should media serve the public or the government? 4. Advertisement exert more positive impact or negative ones? 5. Which media method(s) should be highly expanded? Why? 6. Besides the common media methods, what new approaches can you suggest? Mass Media Today Transient transparent THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA The term mass media refers to the channels of communication (media) that exist to reach a large public audience (the mass of the population).Mass media includes newspapers, magazines, television, radio, and more recently, the Internet. It (informs people about events that they would otherwise know little about. Mass media communication is usually rapid, because the media will report an important event as quickly as possible after it happens.
In fact, some television reporting is live /laiv/ ; that is, the viewers can see the events as they happen. (It is also transient; that is, the focus on one event doesn't last long. This is captured in the expression "there is nothing as old as yesterday's news. " How to define:Lower-carbon release refers to …the emission with a lowered level of carbon carbon –dioxide. Lower-carbon release means that the emission is of a lowered level of carbon carbon –dioxide. Lower-carbon release stands for the emission with a lowered level of carbon monoxide or carbon –dioxide. Friendship refers to mutual understanding, assisting, encouraging and sharing.
Selfishness Selflessness stands for sharing, giving and tolerating. Protecting the celebrities’ privacy means not to publicize their personal affairs without permission. Include ( a way of raising examplesInclude v ((Exclude v. Including prep. ( like , such as, for instance/example Inclusive adj. +ly Exclusive adj. +lyextraordinary, outstanding, only Inform sb.
Of/about sth. =tell sb. Sth. The weather forecast reported /informed people of /about the possibility of a sand storm. The earthquake institute did not inform people in YUSHU about the possibility of the disaster. The government, through the media, informs the public/mass about the updated laws, decrees and regulations. The government informs the public/mass about the updated laws, decrees and regulations by/via the media.
People adopt a variety of approaches to dispose the wastes in order to protect the environment. People, in order to protect the environment, adopt a variety of approaches to dispose the wastes. In order to protect the environment, people adopt a variety of approaches to dispose the wastes. Focus (v. ) on -- the center/concentrate on The Chinese Football Administration is focusing on eradicating the corruption in this field. The focus of the public discussion is how to improve people’s living standard with the increase of the comprehensive national competence.The focus of public discussion has moved from lowering tax to how to shorten the As (adj.
/adv. )… as… Adj. /adv /… TIMES as much as… The rate of China’s economic development in 2009 is THREE TIMES as much as that of 1979. The rate of China’s economic development is same as much as that of USA. difference between the poor and rich. Be exposed to sth. With the exposure to…sth.
With the exposure to the sun, the skin is easy to get brown. The skin is easy to get bronze when it is exposed to the sun. With the exposure to the media, the celebrities are more likely to feel the loss of security.The celebrities are more likely to feel the loss of security when they are exposed to the media. With the exposure to the son without the protection of ozone layer, the temperature of the earth is easy to grow considerably. ????? (? /? ) The population of China reached the summit of 1. 3 billion.
The population of India peaked at 1. 6 billion. The population of India arrived at the peak of 1. 6 billion. The population of India hit the peak at 1. 6 billion in 2009, and then declined dramatically. The population of India remained/maintained at the plateau of 1.
billion. The mass media is an important part of life in the United States and most Americans are exposed to the media daily in the Ell in of print, sound waves, and pictures. Over 55 million newspapers are circulated each day. There are over five radios per household, and it is estimated that radio reaches 77 percent of people over the age of 12 every day. The radio listening time for those over 12 is more than three hours each day. Most households also have two or more television sets, with a total viewing time of about seven hours per day.The amount of time that people spend in front of their television sets varies with age, gender, and education, but on average it amounts to three to four hours a day.
The amount of the exhausted gas of the new type should be limited within 1. 4L. The birth rate of infants amounts to 12 percent. 1. Expose sth. To sb. /sth.
’ 2. Sth. Be exposed to sth’. /sb. 3. With the exposure to sth. ’, Sth….
. It is easier for people to turn brown when they expose their faces to the sunlight straightly. It is easier for people to turn brown when their faces are exposed to the sunlight straightly.With the exposure to the sunlight straightly, people’s faces are easier to get/turn brown. Circle n. Circulate v. ==recycle/reuse/reapply We should try/strike to circulate different resources including paper, water, cloth and so forth.
We can circulate water by cleaning vegetables, clearing mops and washing toilet/sanitary. We have a variety of methods/measures to save energy, such as circulating water and recycling wastes. Household family/sth. About family Eg. Not only should housewives do household chores but also their husbands should be of some help. Vary==differ/be different from… v.Vary with….
Eg. People’s clothes styles vary with their ages, weather, nationalities and fashions. Students’ decisions vary with their own interests, their parents’ preferences and their destination countries. Amount==quantity n. Amount to==reach v. The amount of yearly income of an employee in China amounts to over 10,000 US dollars. The amount of rainfall in southwest China amounts to the average level of previous years.
While most of us make use of some form of the media on a daily basis, we may not think about the functions or purposes the media serves in our society.One important function is entertainment. On television, in particular, the variety of entertainment programs is extensive, ranging from soap operas, to comedy, to talk shows, to sports. Even advertising, where the main purpose is to sell things to the public, may sometimes be seen as entertainment. Make use of sth. / (make full/sufficient use of sth. We have to make full use of time for better score.
We have to make full use of people’s cooperation to overcome the difficulties. On a daily/week basis/ ==every day/week E. g. : We do volunteer work in the nurse house on a week basis.Sufficient preview and review are encouraged on a daily basis. We have 24 hours of teaching on a weekly basis. We have 600 hours of teaching on a term basis.
Function==role Play an important function/role in …. Serve an important function Inventions play an important function in enhancing ( pushing forward) the society. Circulating the energy can play a function in preserving environment. Purpose == aim /goal/target On purpose=deliberately The defending party offended on purpose.????????? We have to shed light on the purpose of studying abroad. In particular =particularlyParticular=special =unique==distinctive Particularly =especially=uniquely the variety of entertainment programs is extensive, ranging from soap operas, to comedy, to talk shows, to sports. Even advertising, where the main purpose is to sell things to the public, may sometimes be seen as entertainment.
the variety of high-tech products is extensive, ranging from cell phones, to televisions, to computers, to electric appliances. Even televisions, where the main purpose is to entertain the public/audience, may sometimes be seen as a symbol of the advancement of technology.The variety of physical exercises is extensive, ranging from walking, to jogging, to swimming, to playing basketball. Even walking, where the main purpose is to help people to digest, may sometimes be seen as one of the mot important ways of exercising. The variety of interests is extensive, ranging from reading novels, to listening to the music, to watching movies, to playing sports and to sleeping. Even sleeping , where the main purpose is to help people to rest, may sometimes be seen as one of the mot important ways of relaxing. ????Media plays various and distinctive functions in social life.
One important function can be entertainment. ??? x3 Another role/function seems to be education. ??? x3 A further function of the mass media appears to be that of socialization??? x3 Another function is education. A quick look through a television or radio guide will reveal many programs with an educational focus. These include documentaries on a wide range of topics such as animal behavior, geography, history, or art. They also include a wide variety of instructional programs such as cooking, home decorating, or investing.Some children's programs are also educational, teaching children to count or recognize words, or introducing them to different societies and cultures.
TV programs: documentary, drama, tragedy, comedy, talk show, catastrophe, fiction, love, action/marshal / A wide range of sth. —a great/wide variety of sth. = a wide assortment of sth. = all sorts/kinds of … Pre-caution—measures taken before the occurrence Protection Prevent Approach v. Intermittent ( internal The media can provide important community information in the form of warnings. For example, the media can warn of the danger of an approaching /coming hurricane or tornado.These warnings provide up-to-the-minute/update/latest information on the location of the bad weather and alert people to take the necessary precautions.
Without such warnings there would be a greater danger of loss of life and property. Warnings may also be given for other hazards such as air or water pollution. Periodically/ intermittently , the media raises questions about water quality, suggesting that the water we drink is not safe. How much these water scares are motivated/encouraged/ pushed ahead by commercial interests is unknown. However, bottled water is a 2-billion-dollar business and growing.In the form of Please submit your application in a written form. Warn sb.
Of sth. The broadcast warned people of the earthquake before it occurred. Approach (method, way, measure ( move, come (to get close to Up-to-date Out-of-date up-to-the-minute ??? alert—awaken Take the necessary precautions Take effective actions to do sth. Take effective precautions against sth. ** Danger/disaster /hazard/catastrophe/ n. Catastrophic =dangerous=disastrous adj. bottled water(canned food(canned beverage(bowled noodle plated rice instant noodle-instant coffee in addition to + n.
==besides, besides vs . xcept/except for In addition to[=besides] industry, real estate is of great importance as well. Except for me, nobody is able to fulfill the task. Shape v. to develop sb. In the form of … Teenagers are encouraged to shape both their beliefs and behaviors currently. Develop into … A man should shape their brevity so as to become the supporting strength.
Socialize sb. Into… I tend to socialize myself into a well-behaved, better-educated and brilliantly-dressed gentleman. Deliberately—on purpose That car deliberately ran over the grassland. Propaganda/ propagandize Amazing—fantastic –crazy Alien—of a foreign …Alienation In response to… == as a reaction to sth. /sb. China promised to reduce her emission of carbon dioxide by 40 percent by 2020 in response to UN’s appeal. Circumstance==condition=situation It is really difficult to realize conducting electricity under the circumstance of super low temperature.
In addition to these functions, the media has an important role in shaping our beliefs. Sometimes information contained in the media is deliberately presented in such a way that it encourages us to believe certain things or to form certain opinions. This practice is referred to as propaganda.When we think of propaganda, we usually think of political forces, but commercial interests may also use the media to propagandize. Advertisements, for example, encourage us to believe that certain products will change our lives in amazing ways. The media can also influence what we believe is possible. For example, 43 percent of American adults believe that UFOs (Unidentified Flying Objects) may be space vehicles from another planet, and most Americans think that alien visitors would be like E.
T. from the movie by Steven Spielberg. TV and movies are likely to be responsible for these views (Miller 1987).A further function of the mass media is that of socialization. This is 7 the process by which a society transmits cultural values about what is appropriate behavior to its members. People may be socialized into behaving in certain ways in response to a personal problem, because they have frequently seen others on the news or in soap operas behaving that way in similar circumstances. Finally, for some people the media offers companionship/friendship.
Television personalities and talk show hosts may be seen as "friends" by their viewers, particularly if those viewers are socially isolated, aged or invalid, and in need of companionship.Host/hostess Waiter/waitress Preside v. -->presider Isolate ==separate==segregate Isolation=separation=segregation The range of functions or purposes of the media in society are8 many and varied, and the influence on our lives is considerable. The media influences how we spend our time and our money, what we get to see and hear about, and the way we understand those events. It helps to shape our beliefs, our opinions and our behaviors. Chinese government spent five years in preparing to host the O. G.
China spent five years on this item. The government spent 5 billion building this bridge.Occasional==unplanned Regular==planned Devote … to Contribute … to Dedicate … to We should devote, contribute and dedicate ourselves to our commitments. Commitment = responsibility and obligation Commercial==business=merchant What's on commercial television? The content of commercial television tends to follow a pattern. Early morning programs consist of news, interviews, and occasional movie reviews. Mid-morning programs usually include more talk shows, with some exercise and re-run shows. The early afternoon is devoted to "soaps," while late afternoon programming is mainly re-runs of old programs.
There is evening news, and then from 8 p. m. to 11 p. m. is prime-time television with movies, situation comedies, and specials. There is usually late news followed by late-night talk shows, entertainment shows and movie re-runs. Scattered throughout the week are televised sporting events.
The expansion/extension of television stations through public broadcast, satellite and cable means that there are now many stations that specialize in particular kinds of programs. ----------------------- A Refers to B A Stands for…B A Means…B A Is……B A can be understood/viewed/seen/perceived/interpreted as B