The Hippocratic Oath requires that `` physician shall continue the criterions of professionalism, be honest in all professional interaction and strive to describe doctors lacking in character or competency or prosecuting in fraud or misrepresentation, to allow entities '' . Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh ( 2005 ) , states that professional work comprises of exercising of cognition, accomplishments and discretional judgements. These properties are developed through committedness of professionals to their professions, to their peculiar domain of work and the promotion of organic structure of cognition.
Medical profession is regarded as one of the noblest professions in the universe. It is merely natural that professional organic structures every bit good as the general public expect the medical practicians to show the highest criterions of professionalism. They are besides expected to adhere to these high criterions even in the face of such hardship as unfavourable occupation environment, hapless conditions and low earning degrees. In order to prolong the trust of the people, the medical professionals must turn out their committedness to competency, unity, morality and selflessness. The best manner to beef up their professionalism is to use these properties in their day-to-day patterns ( O ' Neil, 2002 ) . However, the major alterations in demographic forms, composing of the employment sector, increasing consumerism coupled with worsening moral criterions are progressively exerting force per unit area on professionalism. The medical profession is no exclusion. In the current epoch of information exposure and rapid globalisation, no state can put its professionals, be they of any subject, in quarantine. The medical profession in Pakistan is besides being affected by the international tendencies, both positively and negatively. The degree of occupation satisfaction among physicians, particularly immature physicians, appears to be worsening, as they are frequently found kicking about their inappropriate on the job conditions, deficiency of calling development chances, unequal compensation and thorough working hours etc. The people, nevertheless, by and large remain apathetic to these factors and go on to believe that the physicians must demo and follow with model criterions of professionalism, simply on the footing of their occupation engagement and committedness. The profession is perceived to be a service to the ailing humanity and its members are required to lift above personal involvements while executing their responsibilities.
Though a figure of surveies have been done to mensurate the extent of and the subscribers to occupation satisfaction among medical practicians, this survey intends to look into and mensurate the impact of occupation engagement on the degree of occupation satisfaction. In order to happen the direct impact of occupation engagement, no other subscribers to occupation satisfaction have been included in the survey.
The survey is based on the informations collected from the medical physicians functioning at the learning infirmaries of Riphah International University ( RIU ) , Islamabad viz. Pakistan Railway Hospital ( PRH ) , Rawalpindi, Islamic International Medical Complex ( IIMC ) , Islamabad and Islamic International Dental Complex ( IIDC ) Islamabad. The sample is a blend of physicians of assorted subjects like medical specialty, surgery and dental medicine.
RIU is actively prosecuting the policy of bettering the health care substructure and criterions of patient attention services at its instruction infirmaries. The quality of the physicians and their professionalism at the occupation, is one of the major contributory factor for accomplishing the targeted high criterions. The professionalism of physicians mostly stems from the overall occupation environment in general and their degree of occupation satisfaction in peculiar. It is by and large believed that occupation engagement has a positive correlativity with occupation satisfaction. In position of the RIU 's mission, to advance and pattern Islamic moralss and values in all domains of its activities, the physicians functioning at its instruction infirmaries are expected to demo greater committedness to the profession and derive satisfaction from dedication to and engagement with their occupation. However, no scientific survey has been done to mensurate this peculiar facet at any of the RIU 's instruction infirmaries to day of the month.
Does occupation engagement impact the degree of occupation satisfaction of the medical physicians functioning at the learning infirmaries of RIU? If so, what extent of this impact and what is the nature of this impact, positive or negative?
The survey would be transverse sectional, primary informations based. All the physicians, from House Officers to Consultants/ Professors of all the three instruction infirmaries will be included in the survey.
The job statement intends to prove the impact of occupation engagement ( independent variable ) on occupation satisfaction ( dependent variable ) . Therefore, the survey would be directed towards mensurating the causal result between these two variables. Job engagement is defined as `` the grade of psychological designation an employee has with his/her function in the workplace '' ( Kannungo, 1982 ; Robinowitz and Hall, 1977 ) . Job satisfaction is defined as `` an employee 's satisfaction with the feelings of success achieved from the occupation, the enjoyment of executing the responsibilities of the occupation and the degree of liberty associated with the occupation. ( Yilmaz, 2002 )
The construct of occupation engagement was foremost introduced by Lodahl and Kejiner ( 1965 ) . They related the occupation engagement to the psychological designation of an person with the work or importance of work in the person 's self image. It has a direct correlativity with occupation satisfaction and besides influences the work public presentation, sense of accomplishment and unexplained absenteeism. ( Robinowittz and Hall, 1977 ) . However, there is a important difference in the degree and extent of occupation engagement in different types of work ( Tang, 2000 )
Job satisfaction is one of the most researched constructs. It is regarded as cardinal to work and organisational psychological science. It serves as a go-between for making relationship between working conditions, on the one manus, and individual/organizational result on the other. ( Dormann and Zapf, 2001 )
It is by and large believed that physicians are progressively demoing dissatisfaction with their occupations. A cross sectional survey carried out in the USA, in 1986 and 1997, found a worsening tendency in the satisfaction degree among general internists and household practicians of Massachusetts ( Murray. et Al. 2001 ) . Other surveies besides indicate that a stress degree of physicians has dramatically increased during the last twosome of decennaries. Though the physicians have achieved noticeable success in footings of calling and fundss, they frequently remain over worked and stressed. Consequently, the defeat, choler and restlessness are taking many of them to lose sight of their calling ends and personal aspirations. Another survey concludes that the work load, unsuitable working hours and deficiency of inducements are the major subscribers to the dissatisfaction of public wellness attention doctors in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ( Kalantan, et.al. 1999 ) .
A survey, based on the informations acquired at the learning infirmary of Bahawalpur, concluded that `` Most of the physicians in all ranks and with different makings were found non satisfied with their occupations due to miss of proper service construction and low wages '' ( Ghazali et al, 2000 ) . There are besides other studies of worsening calling satisfaction due to worsening professional liberty ( Toedtm, 2001 ) .A survey conducted among Korean doctors besides concluded that overall occupation satisfaction of doctors was highly low ( Lee et al, 2008 ) .
In order to understand the kineticss of occupation engagement and occupation satisfaction, the underlying contributing factors need to be looked at before determining the impact of one on the other.
Previous surveies have found that factors like income, relationships, liberty, pattern environment and the market environment are of import spheres that influence physician satisfaction ( Mello et al, 2004 ) .
Job engagement is the manner a individual looks at his occupation as a relationship with the working environment and the occupation itself. How occupation involvement generates feelings of disaffection of intent, disaffection in the organisation or feeling of separation between life and occupation as perceived by an employee. This creates co-relation between occupation engagement and work disaffection ( Rabinowitz and Hall, 1981 ) .
Hellriegel and Slocum ( 2004 ) have argued that since satisfaction is a determiner of the work experience, it follows that high degrees of occupation dissatisfaction are indexs of deeper organisational jobs. Job dissatisfaction is strongly linked to absenteeism, turnover, and physical and mental wellness jobs. It can be safely concluded that occupation satisfaction has a strong relationship with organisational committedness. The workers who are attracted by the occupation and organisation turn out to be most motivated. This is because their organisational committedness and occupation engagement is of a really high degree. They identify with and care about their occupations.
Dissatisfaction among the medical professional is non a recent phenomenon. Excessive work burden, demand on clip and bureaucratic working environment had been the traditional thorns taking to low degree of occupation satisfaction among the physicians ( Lee et al.,2008 ) . More countries of dissatisfaction have been identified by the recent surveies which relate to decreased professional liberty over clinical determinations and decreased clip per patient. ( Murray et al. , 2001 ) . Measuring the degree of occupation satisfaction among the medical professional strictly on the footing of occupation engagement may supply a new dimension to the findings of the old surveies. The occupation engagement of the medical practicians, in this survey, is being looked at from the point of position of committednes to the profession due to its aristocracy and service to the humanity instead than due to the factors traditionally identified with this construct.
The survey covered all the physicians from House Officers to Consultants/Professors functioning in the three instruction infirmaries ( PRH, IIMC, IIDC ) of RIU ( module members non involved in clinical pattern are excluded )
The instrument, in the signifier of a questionnaire, used for probe has been adopted as follows
Job engagement was measured by 9 points taken from occupation involvement graduated table of J.K.White and R.A.Ruh ( 1973 ) . Each point was measured on a five point Linkert graduated table where value of 1 corresponded to `` Strongly Disagree '' and value of 5 corresponded to `` Strongly Agree '' . Mean of the tonss obtained on each of the 9 points was calculated to bring forth a individual mark for occupation engagement.
Job satisfaction was measured by 19 points taken from Cammann, Fichman and Klesh ( 1979 ) . Each point was measured on five point Linkert graduated table where value of 1 corresponded to `` Strongly Disagree '' and value of 5 corresponded to `` Strongly Agree '' . The tonss obtained on each of the 19 points were converted into mean to bring forth individual mark for occupation satisfaction.
The concluding version of this questionnaire consisted of 28 inquiries utilizing five point Linkert Scale and six demographic facets.
Datas were collected, on site, over a period of 10 yearss from the pre determined sample. Purpose of the survey and the questionnaires were discussed with the decision makers of the infirmaries. One officer at every infirmary, punctually briefed about the assorted facets of the questionnaire, was nominated to personally administer and subsequently roll up the questionnaires from the respondent. A sum of 140 questionnaires were distributed among the physicians at three infirmaries of which 127 completed questionnaires were received back. Therefore, the respondents represent 90.71 % of the selected population which is a reasonably high degree of response.
Findings & Discussion
The correlativity analysis indicate a important relationship of 0.43** ( **p & lt ; 0.01 ) . Thus it supports hypothesis of survey that the physicians ' occupation satisfaction at learning infirmaries of RIU depends to good extent upon their occupation engagement. The arrested development analysis indicate that merely 19 % discrepancy in the dependant variable is explained by the independent variable. This low value indicates that there are other variables which contribute towards occupation satisfaction of physicians working at learning infirmaries of RIU. The value and T values besides show a important value which proves the hypothesis of current survey. The consequences of this survey are consistent with consequences obtained in survey conducted by Huselid & A ; Becker ( 1998 )
The concerned directors and physicians at these infirmaries were asked to show their sentiment about importance of occupation engagement at their work topographic point. After elaborate treatment the ground for this important relationship is due to the fact that these infirmaries are established with a mission to pattern ethical values, focused more on a service for community instead than fiscal additions. The physicians who join these infirmaries largely come with a mission aligned with organisational aims. Hence, apart from other factors, occupation engagement is one of the key factors which make them satisfied with their occupation.
The survey contributes towards explicating importance of employee engagement in occupation satisfaction. The findings besides suggested that direction might be able to increase the degree of satisfaction with increasing the interactions with physicians in staff meetings. Doctors could be interviewed to find their perceptual experiences of direction 's ability to turn to these issues. Most of the Pakistani organisations do non recognize the importance of occupation engagement which as per the present survey is one of the cardinal contributing factors towards occupation satisfaction.
The primary aim of this research was to analyze the impact of occupation engagement on the degree of occupation satisfaction of physicians functioning at the learning infirmaries of RIU. This survey has through empirical observation demonstrated that occupation engagement has a positive relationship with the degree of occupation satisfaction among the selected sample of physicians. Therefore, RIU may see following the policies which may further higher degrees of occupation engagement. This may besides be an effectual scheme to increase the degree of occupation engagement among the physicians and, in return, harvest the benefits of the higher efficiency and greater patient satisfaction. More investing in conditions that are contributing to increasing the occupation engagement would accomplish higher degree of occupation satisfaction, finally taking to increased patient satisfaction and organisational growing.
Restrictions of the Study
It is of import to observe that this survey is based on preset population comprising of the physicians functioning at the three learning infirmaries of RIU. As these infirmaries are being managed by the same authorization i.e. RIU, the physicians are working under the same policies and, more or less, in the similar working environment. This may restrict the generalizability of the findings to other scenes and population. Thus, farther research should try to retroflex and widen these findings to different samples in different organisational scene.