The international transactions in services are defined as the economic output of intangible commodities that may be produced, transferred and consumed at the same time. Traditionally services are viewed as domestic activities due to direct contact between producer and consumer and government monopoly in infrastructure sector. The emerging digitization concept has altered this perception. The ascent of information and communication technology has given rise to e-commerce, e-banking, e-learning, e-medicine and e-governance. So, it is argued that government finds it increasingly difficult to cope up with technology-driven activities.
Because of that Nowadays Education has turned out to be a commodity of international trade. It is no more a public good on domestic scale, but a private good on global scale. Globalization brings education to the front lines. In the prevailing discourse, education is expected to be the major tool for incorporation into the ‘knowledge society’ and the technological economy. In this paper we are going to see the impact of globalization on knowledge, education systems, and equity policies. Key words: Globalisation, Indian Education, Knowledge, Society, Technology, Economy, Equity Policies, Digitization
Introduction Over thousands of years, globalization has contributed to the progress of the world through travel, trade, migration, spread of cultural influences, and dissemination of knowledge and understanding. These global interrelations have often been very productive in the advancement of different countries. Globalization is viewed by somebody as westernization. But it is not so. The decimal system emerged and became well developed in India between the second and sixth centuries; it was used by Arab mathematicians soon thereafter.
These mathematical innovations reached Europe mainly in the last quarter of the tenth century and began having an impact in the early years of the last millennium, playing an important part in the scientific revolution that helped to transform Europe. The agents of globalization are neither European nor exclusively Western, nor are they necessarily linked to Western dominance. Indeed, Europe would have been a lot poorer-economically, culturally, and scientifically- had it resisted the globalization of mathematics, science, and technology at that time. And today, the same principle applies, though in the opposite direction (from West to East).
And Now, Initial enthusiasm for globalization as a beneficial set of processes has yielded to an understanding that the phenomenon is largely associated with increasing social inequality within and between countries as well as instability and conflict. So at this stage, it is necessary to find the impact of globalization on Indian Economy. Education is important not only for the full development of one’s personality, but also for the sustained growth of the nation. Education is an important investment in building human capital that is a driver for technological innovation and economic growth.
It is only through improving the educational status of a society that the multi-faceted development of its people can be ensured Basically Indian Education system is composed of three components and they are Primary education, Secondary education and Higher education. Today, in the age of privatization, globalization and liberalization, India is exposed to the world in all spheres. In the present competitive world, expansion, excellence and inclusion are the three challenges of Indian education system. The age old system of education has to be reformed. Practical knowledge should be given more priority than heoretical knowledge. Indian Education System Indian education has its own history of development. In the earlier times, Gurukulas dominated the society, which emphasized the traditional and cultural education, which had its own restriction. But Indian education system got an impetus after the invasion of the British. Western education exerted its influence on the Indian education system, under the British rule. McCauley’s education policy is worthy of note. Scientific and technological education gained more importance than traditional and cultural education in this era.
But in the post-independence period, our constitution made the education a fundamental right and enacted a law for compulsory education up to 14 years. Today higher education gives more importance to survival in this competitive world. Today is the age of privatization, globalization and liberalization. India is exposed to the world in all spheres. In the present competitive world, expansion, excellence and inclusion are the three challenges of Indian education system. The age old system of education has to be reformed. Practical knowledge should be given more priority than theoretical knowledge
Impact of Globalization on Indian Education The education in India is at a crossroads. Its liberal and secular character and content, carefully nourished during the last fifty years, despite several vicissitudes, is now undergoing fundamental transformation. Trends in Global Education which affects the quality of education ? Dilution and trivialization of the aims of education ? Fragmentation and compartmentalization of education ? Alienation of knowledge from social ethos ? Restriction of access through commercialization, privatization and competitive screening ?
Parallelization or hierarchical layering of school systems ? Homogenization of socio- cultural diversities through increasing centralization The children of the poor and socially disadvantaged have been denied English medium school education. The rapid growth of the software development and electronic communications industries is one of the few achievements of Indian industry in post-independence India. Further, because of strong hold of the English language in MNCs and corporate circles, the divide between rural and urban is almost complete in the field of education.
In consequence, this great reservoir of skills and expertise offers the opportunity to utilize them for the spread of quality education through several technologies. Impact of Globalization on Indian Education Globalization process means in the context of Higher Education as a very competitive and deregulated educational system modeled after ‘free-market’ but with more pressure on it to assure that the future workers is prepared for some fluid jobs in the ‘free-market of 21st century’.
Further it means that educational system would provide the sites of struggle over the meaning and power of national identity and a national culture. Because of the commercialization, Educational sector has been more commonly described as, not service sector, but education industry. The free market philosophy has already entered the educational sphere in a big way. Commercialization of education is the order of the day. Commercial institutions offering specialized education have come up everywhere. In view of globalization, many corporate universities, both foreign and Indian, are encroaching upon our government institutions.
Once these institutions turn ‘self-financing’, their prices would be benchmarked against their global counterparts, which would be affordable to the same top layer of the society. As the job markets become acutely narrow, the polarization between the elite and non-elite would be clearly discernible. Meanwhile, various kinds of price barriers would be imposed to prevent the entry of the non-elite like the downtrodden and poor communities. Further, Corporatisation has transformed the education sector into an enterprise for profits.
Beyond a small group of elite institutions, few Indian institutions are globally accredited or recognized. Thus, the competition for a handful of elite institutions is severe. The Indian education system is not able to mobilize funds from its students at home. By some accounts, Indian students, whose fees are paid by their parents, have become a net subsidizer of British higher education; the largest number of foreign students in the US come from India, some 80,000; and there are even an estimated 5,000 Indian medical students in China.
Many of the best students go abroad. Globalization has made education an extraordinary business opportunity with a great impact on employment. In the current scenario, Universities from different parts of the world want to join hands with Indian Universities and be a part of India's lucrative economic strength. Partnership, Academic Exchanges, Joint Ventures, Research Collaboration, just about everything short of building a campus on Indian soil (illegal) are the ways in which Universities in the UK are seeking a stake in India.
Large Industrial Organizations like Tata’s, Reliance, Essars or the Associations like CII, FICCI, SIAM ; ACMA start the initiatives to start Institutes of Excellence throughout India with collaborations from Institutes like Harvard School of Business, MIT in USA ; London School of Economics There are certain advantages in Recruiting Overseas Students like students will get international exposure and they will develop skills such as talking to industry, making presentations and dealing with senior managers. Recruiting Overseas students is a way of getting financial advantage for the universities.
Social Exclusion - The problems of Indian education center on financing, equity and excellence. As these problems have been confounded by rapid globalization that requires only educated manpower, the traditionally excluded social groups, which are way behind the advanced groups in their access to education, are now victims of a double whammy. In fact, the introduction of ‘cost recovery’ principles that results in a hike in fees contributes to reduction in the burden of the government in financing higher education. Further, privatization of higher education makes it expensive such that it is beyond the reach of lower income groups.
Inadequate income implies denial of opportunity of the benefits of higher education whereas the denial of access to higher education results in the lack of fair opportunities to improve income. The children of the poor and socially disadvantaged have been denied English medium school education. Decades of under-investment in education have created shocking shortages of buildings, laboratories, libraries, sanitary facilities and even drinking water and sanitation facilities in the nation’s decaying education sector especially in Government Schools.
The rapid growth of the software development and electronic communications industries is one of the few achievements of Indian industry in post-independence India. Further, because of strong hold of the English language in MNCs and corporate circles, the divide between rural and urban is almost complete in the field of education. In consequence, this great reservoir of skills and expertise offers the opportunity to utilize them for the spread of quality education through several technologies. Challenges posed by Globalization on Indian Education
In the world of unequal opportunities, idea and knowledge are the emerging factors that decide development or lack of it, education cannot be left entirely to market forces. Further, market needs should be kept in view while developing the curriculum. The element of productivity orientation should guide the formulation of curriculum framework. It is also necessary that while deciding about the fee structure and other student levies, the tendency towards commercialization of education should be guarded against.
Globalization poses challenges like • Faculty Shortage • Quality of education • Incentive structures As the world moves on to forging an information society founded on education, India cannot remain behind as a non-competitive knowledge economy. India has to create an environment that does not produce industrial workers and labourers but fosters knowledge workers. Such people must be at the cutting edge of knowledge workers and, in turn, placing India in the vanguard in the information age.
This is not to argue that the opportunities opened up by information technology are to be shunned, but to suggest its creative incorporation in the system of education. At the same time it is necessary to recognize the fact that the educational conditions created by information technology are pregnant with the possibilities of intellectual colonization. The breaking of the geographical barriers and communication restrictions are indeed healthy attributes of knowledge dissemination, but it cannot be divorced rom the economic and political contexts of knowledge production Indian education system is one of the most tightly controlled in the world. The government regulates who you can teach, what you can teach them and what you can charge them. It also has huge regulatory bottlenecks. There are considerable entry barriers: Universities can be set up only through acts of legislation, approval procedures for starting new courses are cumbersome, syllabi revision is slow, and accreditation systems are extremely weak and arbitrary.
The regulators permit relatively little autonomy for institutions and variation amongst them. The shortage of quality institutions is a product of India’s regulatory structures. Increased public investment that the government has promised is absolutely necessary to increase access Quotas became a symbol of the state’s power over Indian education: its propensity to hoist its own purposes upon academic institutions regardless of their impact on the quality of these institutions.
Globalization requires two contradictory transformations in the state: On the one hand, successful globalization requires that the state invest heavily in increasing access to education. But in higher education, globalization also requires the state to respect the autonomy of institutions so that a diversity of experiments can find expression, so that institutions have the flexibility to do what it takes to retain talent in a globalized world and, above all, respond quickly to growing demand.
Globalization demands a paradigm shift in the regulation of higher education. In India the debate has only just begun. There is a mismatch between the supply and demand. As for Indian universities they function today without even the basic minimum facilities and with teachers who have no access to the latest advances in their disciplines. These institutions churn out students who complete their education as outcastes even in their own chosen area of knowledge. What these institutions offer is unacceptable to the fast growing affluent Indian middle class.
The situation is likely to aggravate in coming days with the UGC reportedly being deprived of its funding functions and the introduction of an accreditation system which would stamp many an institution as academic slums without ever the possibility of a honourable redemption. Understandably education is a fertile land for investment, particularly if it comes with a foreign tag. Conclusion The education system must ensure that students gain not just depth of knowledge in these subjects but a holistic perception and skills that will equip them to face the real world.
At every stage, there must be opportunities to expand their boundaries, platforms for collaboration and learning and recognition for those who strive to excel. Further, market needs should be kept in view while developing the curriculum. The element of productivity orientation should guide the formulation of curriculum framework. It is also necessary that while deciding about the fee structure and other student levies, the tendency towards commercialization of education should be guarded against.
India should decide about the nature and extent of globalization that can be constructively introduced in their socio-economic and educational systems. While it is difficult to resist the temptation of falling in line with the international community, it is necessary that while doing so, the paramountcy of national interests should be kept in view. This is more so in the field of education, which is intimately concerned with the development of human capital. Ultimately, any hasty involvement in the global educational market can end up in harming the vital interests of students, and particularly of poor and downtrodden for generations to come.
Proper regulatory mechanisms to be established to ensure that the universities, in particular the privately funded ones, do not end up exploiting students. Finally, it is about always trying to push the bar a little more, constantly innovating and never standing still. If the educational institutions believe in a value based education system, then their students will excel in all walks of life. At schools and colleges that believe in educational excellence, student enthusiasm and feedback is an important driver of change and evaluation.
They create a vibrant, student community that continually innovative and excels in all spheres from academics to arts and sports. Globalization is a never ending process and Developing countries like India should utilize this properly to improve their national standard through their education system.